Berger, I., Wientraub, V., Dollberg, S., Kopolovitz, R., & Mandel, D. (2009).  Energy expenditure for breastfeeding and bottle-feeding preterm infants, Pediatrics 124(6), e1149-e1152.

This study indicates that there is no significant difference between the energy expenditure for infants born after 32 weeks gestation when breastfeeding versus bottle-feeding.  The message: breastfeeding is NOT harder than bottle-feeding.

Birch, L. & Fisher, J. (1998). Development of eating behaviors among children and adolescents. Pediatrics 101, Supplement 2, 539-549.

This article also describes the negative effects of parental pressure during mealtimes on children's eating habits and overall intake.  It demonstrates that pressuring children to eat certain "good" foods has been associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake as well as picky eating in general.

Black, M. & Aboud, F. (2011). Responsive feeding is embedded in a theoretical framework of responsive parenting. The Journal of Nutrition, 141(3), 490-494.

This article describes responsive parenting (reciprocity between the child and caregiver) and applies this to the feeding dynamic.  It provides evidence for use of the responsive feeding approach to promote healthy growth and prevent undernutrition and overeating and suggests that providing nutritional recommendations that focus on food only and do not consider the feeding context may be ineffective.

Galloway, A., Fiorito, L., Francis, L., & Birch, L. (2006). 'Finish your soup': Counterproductive effects of pressuring children to eat on intake and affect. Appetite, 46, 318-323.

This study shows that children who were pressured to eat by their parents at home had a significantly lower BMI than those who were not pressured.  Mealtime pressure resulted in lower intake and negative responses to the specific foods the children were pressured to eat.

Habron, J., Booley, S., Najaar, B., & Day, C. E. (2013). Responsive feeding: establishing healthy eating behaviour early on in life. S Afr J Clin Nutr 2013, 26(3)(Supplement), S141-149.

This article provides detailed information on the Responsive Feeding (RF) approach and its positive effect on children's growth, eating behavior and nutrient and food intake as well as use of nonresponsive feeding (NRF) and its associated feeding problems and both undernutrition and overnutrition.

Harding, C.M., Law, J., & Pring, T. (2006). The use of non-nutritive sucking to promote functional sucking skills in premature infants: An exploratory trial. Infant 2(6): 238-240, 42, 43.

This small, pilot study indicated that a non-nutritive sucking program implemented by a speech-language pathologist positively benefited the feeding development of preterm infants.

Kerzner, B., Milano, K., MacLean, W.C. Jr., Berall, G., Stuart, S., & Chatoor, I. (2015). A practical approach to classifying and managing feeding difficulties. Pediatrics, 135, 344-353.

This article considers both medical and psychological factors related to reported feeding difficulties in young children.  Three principal eating behaviors that typically concern parents (limited appetite, selective intake, and fear of feeding), the range of feeding behaviors from normal (misperceived) to severe (behavioral and organic), and the feeding styles of parents/caregivers (responsive, controlling, indulgent, and neglectful) were all described in order to  help pediatricians and other professionals accurately assess the feeding disorder and make appropriate recommendations.

Law-Morstatt, L., Judd, D.M., Snyder, P., Baier, R.J., & Dhanireddy, R. (2003). Pacing as a treatment technique for transitional sucking. Journal of Perinatology, 23, 483-488.

This study concludes that external pacing is an effective technique to improve oral feeding in preterm infants with respiratory disease.  For full-term infants demonstrating difficulty with the coordination of the suck-swallow-breathe pattern, this technique has proven effective in our clinical practice.

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Disclaimer: This information is not to replace professional support that may be available to you/your

child through local speech pathologists or occupational therapists with expertise in feeding.  

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